In search of an increase in labor productivity and a decrease in the cost of milk, eggs and meat, an interesting solution was found - feed erection. Using this method, you can "cook" wheat, corn, peas, soybeans, almost any grain and legumes, even straw becomes quite edible for cows and increases milk yield.
The principle of operation of the extruder is as follows: the raw material is squeezed out through special filters, a high pressure of 50 atmospheres is created, the temperature rises to 100-150 ° C. At the same time, various biological processes take place - fiber is converted into secondary sugar, starch decomposes into simple sugars. High temperatures disinfect food, neutralizing elements harmful to birds and animals.
After heating and pressure, the grain and legumes leave the extruder barrel, the energy is suddenly released and an explosion occurs, the feed increases dramatically in volume. Microwaving your favorite popcorn can demonstrate this process.
Thanks to the erection, the straw is saccharified, lingin comes out of it in the form of soluble humic acids, and lime acts as a saccharification catalyst and calcium supplement. Salts of organic acids allow calcium to be absorbed not only in the stomach, as usual, but throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract.
The advantages of extruded feed have been proven by numerous studies, including:
- an increase in weight gain by 50-100%, which makes it possible to reduce the feeding time, for example, bulls reach the required weight after 1, 2 years against 1, 8 with a normal diet;
- increase in feed digestibility by 30-30%;
- reduction of feed costs per unit of production by 7-12%;
- reduction of the death of animals from gastrointestinal diseases;
- an increase in milk yield, egg production.
Among the disadvantages of extruded feed are the relatively high price (which justifies itself when considering the increase in production efficiency) and low feed moisture. On the one hand, dry food is easy to store and use, no need to spend efforts on steaming, warming up, washing the feeders. On the other hand, animals require constant access to clean water when feeding.
To reduce the cost of feed and increase nutritional value, producers combine different types of grains and legumes. If the straw of wheat and rye has a very low nutritional value, is poorly eaten by animals and is practically not used for feeding, then in combination with other crops, it becomes useful and tasty for livestock during erection, acquires a pleasant bread smell, a sweet taste and a soft texture. Due to the release of sugars during excretion, glucose and molasses supplements can be removed from the diet of animals, which also leads to savings.